C++

C++ INTERVIEW QUESTIONS

 

1.What is meant by OOPS?

OOPS is the Programming methodology provides a way of modularizing programs by creating partitioned memory area for both data and functions.

 

2. What are the Basic concepts of OOPS?

 

The basic concepts of oops are

 

1. Objects

 

2. Classes

 

3. Data abstraction and encapsulation

 

4. Inheritance

 

5. Polymorphism

 

6. Dynamic binding

 

7. Message passing

 

3. What is meant by Object in OOPS?

 

Objects are the runtime entities in an object-oriented system.It may represent the place, college, person.

 

Example: College

 

For college, the college has a name and creation date and types of college right.so those are the attributes of the college.

 

4. What is meant by Classes in OOPS?

 

Classes are user-defined data type and behave like the built-in data types of a programming language.

 

Example: Car BMW

 

In this example, BMW is the class of the car.

 

5. What is meant by Data Encapsulation?

 

The collection of data and functions into a single unit is called data encapsulation.

 

6. What is meant by Data Abstraction?

 

Data Abstraction refers to the act of representing essential features without including the background details or explanation.

 

7. What is meant by Inheritance?

 

The new class derived from the old class is called the inheritance.

 

Example: Fruit

 

In fruit, banana is included right but in banana also there is a lot of variety is present.

 

8. What is meant by Polymorphism?

 

Polymorphism is allowed to creates more than one functions with the same name in a program.

 

9. What is meant by Operator Overloading?

 

The process of making an Operator exhibit different behaviors in different instances is known as Operator Overloading.

 

10. What is meant by Function Overloading?

 

The single function name used to perform different types of tasks is known as Function Overloading.

 

11. What is meant by Dynamic Binding?

 

Dynamic Binding means the code associated with a given procedure call is not known until the time of the call at runtime.

 

12. What is another name for Dynamic Binding?

 

Another name for Dynamic Binding is called Late Binding.

 

13. What is meant by Message passing?

 

Message passing involves specifying the name of an object and the name of the function and the information to be sent.

 

14. What are the applications of OOPS?

 

1. Real-time systems

 

2. Simulation and modeling

 

3. Object-oriented databases

 

4. Hypertext, hypermedia

 

5. AI and expert systems

 

6. CIM/CAD/CAM

 

15. What is meant by Coding?

 

The act of writing a program on a computer is called Coding.

 

16. What are the merits of the OOPS?

 

1. Reusability

 

2. Code Sharing

 

3. Data hiding

 

4. Reduced complexity of a problem

 

5. Prototyping

 

17. What are the limitations of OOPS?

 

1. Compiler overhead

 

2. Runtime overhead

 

3.Re-orientation of a software developer to object-oriented thinking.

 

18. What is meant by Tokens?

 

The individual units in a program are known as tokens.The tokens are

 

1.Keywords

 

2. Identifiers

 

3.Constants

 

4. Strings

 

19. What is meant by Identifiers?

 

Identifiers refer to the names of variables, functions, arrays, classes created by the programmer.

 

 

20. What is the difference between Keyword and Identifiers?

 

Keyword:

 

1.It is a special word that has a special meaning and purpose

 

2. Keywords are reserved.

 

3. Example: Switch, else

 

Identifiers:

 

1. It is the user-defined name given to a part of a program

 

2. Identifiers are opposite to the keyword which means not reserved

 

3. Example: Chess, trial

 

21.Classify the different types of the Derived data types?

 

1. Arrays

 

2. Functions

 

3. Pointers

 

22. Classify the User-defined data types?

 

1. Enumeration

 

2. Structure

 

3. Class

 

23. What is meant by Enumeration?

 

An enumerated data type allows us to define our own data type with predefined values.

 

24. What is meant by Structure?

 

A Structure is defined as a datatype that can hold different types of data within a single name.

 

25. What are the three types of Scope of variables?

 

There are three types of Scope of Variable

 

1. Global Variable

 

2. Local Variable

 

3. External Variable

 

26. What is meant by Global Variables?

 

Global Variables are the variables that constitute the data that are declared outside of any function and they are accessible to all functions.

 

27. What is meant by Local Variables?

 

Local Variables can be referred in a limited way at the code level, where they are declared.

 

28. What is meant by External Variables?

 

The variables are defined as external can be visible in multiple programs.The variable defined in the first file can be used in all other files linked to the first file.

 

29. What are the types of the Constants C++ allowing?

 

The following types of the Constants are allowed by the C++

 

1. Integer Constants

 

2. Character Constants

 

3. Floating point Constants

 

4. String Constants

 

30. What is meant by Character Constants?

 

One or more characters enclosed in a single quote.

 

31. What is meant by Semantics?

 

Set of rules that giving the meaning of a statement.

 

32. What is meant by Syntax?

 

\ Formal rules governing the construction of valid statements.

 

33. What are the types of Operators available in C++?

 

Not only in C++ in programming world there are various types of operator available

 

1. Assignment Operators

 

2. Arithmetic Operators

 

3. Relational Operators

 

4. Logical Operators

 

5. Bitwise Operators

 

6. Ternary Operators

 

34. What is meant by Expressions?

 

An expression is a combination of variables, constants and operators written in any form as per the syntax of the language.

 

35. What are the types of the Expressions?

 

There are Four types of Expressions

 

1. Constant Expressions

 

2. Integrated Expressions

 

3. Float Expressions

 

4. Pointer Expressions

 

36. What is meant by Integral Expressions?

 

Integral Expressions are those produce integer results after implementing all the automatic and explicit type.

 

37. What is meant by Float Expressions?

Float Expressions are those which, after all, conversions, produce floating-point results.

 

38. What is meant by Pointer Expressions?

Pointer Expressions produce address value.

 

39. What is meant by Manipulators?

 

Manipulators are operators that are used to format the data display.The most commonly used manipulators are endl and stew.

 

40. What is meant by Array?

An array is a collection of the same type that is referred by a common name.

 

41. What are the types of Arrays?

 

There are two types of arrays

 

1. One-dimensional array

 

2. Multidimensional array

 

42. What is meant by Structure?

The structure is defined as a data type to represent different types of data within a single name.

 

43. What is meant by Functions?

 

1.A Function is a set of program statements that can be processed Independently.

 

2.A Functions is used to reduce the size of the program.

 

44. What are the advantages of the Functions?

 

1. Modular Programming

 

2. Reduce the work and development time.

 

3. Reduce the size of the program

 

45. What are the Components involved in Functions?

 

The function components are

 

1.Function declaration or prototype

 

2. Function parameters

 

3. return statement

 

4. Function call

 

46.What are the types of functions involved in the OOPS?

 

There are 2 types of Functions are involved

 

1. Library Functions

 

2. User-defined Functions

 

47. What is the byte value is assigned to the Integer OOPS?

 

The byte value is assigned for the Integer is 2.

 

48. What is the byte value assigned to the Float in OOPS?

 

The byte value is assigned for the Float is 4

 

49. What is meant by Debugging?

 

The process of finding and removing the error from the program.

 

50. What is meant by Inline Functions in C++?

 

An INline Function is a function that is expanded in line when it is invoked.That is, the compiler replaces the function call with corresponding function code.

 

Eample:

 

inline double cube(double a)

{

return (a*a*a);

}


51. Mention any two situations Inline functions do not work?

 

1. If the inline functions are recursive inline functions is not work.

 

2. If functions contain Static variables.

 

52. What is meant by Recursion?

 

Recursion is a situation where a function calls itself meaning.

 

53. What are the types of the class specification?

 

There are two type of class specification

1. Class declarations

 

2. Class function definition

 

54. How many places are member functions are defined?

 

1. Outside the class function

 

2. Inside the class function

 

55. What is meant by Friend Functions?

 

Friend Functions that have access to the private members of a class but is not itself a member of the class.

 

56. What are the special characteristics of the friend functions?

 

1. Friend functions has the objects as arguments

 

2. It can be declared in the public or private part of the class without affecting its meaning.

 

3. It can be invoked like normal functions without the help of an object.

 

57. What is meant by Constructor in C++?

 

Its name is the same as the class name.The constructor is used to initialize the objects of its class.

 

58. What is meant by Default Constructor?

The constructor that accepts no parameter is called Default Constructor.

 

59. What is the characteristic of the Constructor?

 

1. The Constructor should be declared in the public section

 

2. They have invoked automatically when the objects are created.

 

3. They don’t have the return types.

 

4. They cannot be inherited.

 

60. What are the types of Constructors?

 

1. Parameterized Constructor

 

2. Default Constructor

 

3. Copy Constructor

 

61. What is meant by Parameterized Constructors?

 

The constructor which allows passing arguments to the Constructor is called Parameterized Constructors.

 

62. What is meant by Copy Constructor?

A  constructor which is used to initialize an object using another object of the same class is called the Copy Constructor.

 

63. What is meant by Destructors?

 

The Destructor is used to destroy the objects that have been created by a constructor.It does not take any argument nor does it return any value.

 

64. What are the functions should satisfy Casting Operator?

 

1. It must be a class member

 

2. It must not specify a return type.

 

3. It must not have any arguments.

 

65. What are the different types of Inheritance?

 

1. Single Inheritance

 

2. Multiple Inheritance

 

3. Hierarchal Inheritance

 

4. Multilevel Inheritance

 

5. Hybrid Inheritance

 

 

66. What is meant by Single Inheritance?

 

A derived class with only one base class is called single inheritance.

 

67. What is meant by Multiple Inheritance?

 

A class can inherit properties from more than one class which is known as multiple inheritances.

 

68. What is meant by Multilevel Inheritance?

 

A class can be derived from another derived class which is known as multilevel inheritance.

 

69. What is meant by Hybrid Inheritance?

A class is inherited by more than one class is called hierarchal inheritance.

 

70. What is meant by Abstract Class?

 

Abstract Class is one that is not used to create objects. It is designed only to act as a base class.

 

71. What are the rules for the Virtual Functions?

 

1. The Virtual functions must be members of some class

 

2. They cannot be static members

 

3. They are accessed by using pointers.

 

4. A virtual function can be a friend of another class.

 

72. What are the two types of Errors?

 

1. Logic errors

 

2. Syntactic errors

 

73. What are the types of the Exception Handling?

 

There are two types of Exception Handling

 

1.Synchronous Exception

 

2. Asynchronous Exception

 

74. What are the keywords used in the Exception Handling Mechanism?

 

1. Try

 

2. Catch

 

3. Throw

 

75. What is meant by Exception?

 

The exception is peculiar problems that a program may encounter at the runtime.

 

76. What are the components of STL?

1.Containers

 

2.Algorithms

 

3.Iterators

 

 

77. What is an algorithm in C++ and what is the uses?

 

An algorithm is a procedure that is used to process the data contained in the containers.

 

Use of an algorithm:

 

The STL components include different types of algorithms to provide support tasks such as

initializing, searching, copying sorting and merging.

 

78. What are the types of Containers?

1. Sequence Containers

 

2. Associative Containers

 

3. Derived Containers

 

 

79. What is meant by Sequence Containers?

Sequence Containers store elements in a linear sequence.Each element is related to other

elements by its position along the line.

 

80. What are the types of Sequence Containers?

1. Vector

 

2. List

 

3. Deque

 

81. What is meant by Associative Containers?

Associative Containers are designed to support direct access to elements using keys.They are not sequential.

 

82. What are the types of Associative Containers?

There are four types of Associative Containers

 

1. Set

 

2. Multiset

 

3. Map

 

4. Multimap

 

 

83. What are the types of STL algorithm available in C++?

 

1. Retrieve or nonmutating Algorithms

 

2. Mutating Algorithms

 

3. Sorting Algorithms

 

4. Relational Algorithms

 

 

84. What is meant by the Break statement?

 

The Break statement is used to cause an exit from the loop.

 

85. What is meant by Char?

 

It is a fundamental data type and is used to declare character variables and arrays.

 

86. What is meant by Do loop?

 

It is a control statement that creates a loop of operations. It is used with another keyword while in the form

 

Syntax:

do

{

Statements

}

While(expressions)

 

87. What is the Access Specifier available in C++?

1. Public

 

2. Private

 

3. Protected

 

 

88. What is meant by Member Functions?

A function declared within a class and not declared as a friend.These functions can have access to the data members and define operations that can be performed on the data.

 

89. What is meant by Static Binding?

It is opposite to the dynamic binding.The functions are bound to the code to be executed at compile time.It is also called early binding.

 

90. What is meant by Call by reference?

A function call mechanism that passes arguments to a function by passing the addresses of the arguments.

 

91. What is meant by Call by Value?

 

A function call mechanism that that passes arguments to a function by passing the value of the arguments.

 

92. What is meant by Reusability?

 

Reusability feature is supported in OOPS.This allows the reuse of existing classes without

redefinition.

 

93. What is meant Scope Resolution Operator?

The operator which is usually used to indicate the classes in which that identifier is accessible.

 

94. What is meant by Storage Class?

An attribute of a variable definition that controls how the variable will be stored in a memory.

 

95. What is meant by LOOP?

A LOOP is a group of statements whose actions are repeated using an iterative construct.

 

Example: For, While, Do while

 

96.What is meant by compiler?

 

The compiler is used to translate the programming language into Machine language.

 

97. Define Else in C++?

 

Else is used to specify an iterative path in two-way branch control execution.

 

Syntax:

if(expression)

statement - 1;

else

statement - 2;

 

98. What is meant by Application Software?

It is a software that is used to solve a particular problem or provide a particular service.

 

99. What is meant by Sytem Software?

It is software that is used to designed to support the Development and execution of application program.

 

100. What is a type of programming approach used by OOPS?

 

OOPS uses the Bottom-Up approach and OOPS is invented to overcome the drawbacks of the POP.

 

 

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