1.What is meant by Software Engineering?


Software Engineering is a discipline that produces error-free software within a time and budget.


2. Define Software Testing?


Software Testing can be defined as a process used for revealing defects in software, and for establishing that the software has attained a specified degree of quality with respect to selected attributes.


3. What are the elements included in the Engineering Disciplines?


1. Basic Principles


2. Processes




4. Measurements


5. Tools


6. Methods


7. Best practices


8. Code of ethics


9. Body of Knowledge


4.Differentiate between Verification and Validation?




It is the process of evaluating software system or component to determine whether the products of a given development phase satisfy the conditions imposed at the start of the phase.


Example: Are we building the product right?




It is the process of evaluating a system component during or at the end of the development process to determine whether it satisfies specified requirements.


Example: We are building the right product?


5.Define the term “Testing”?


Testing is generally described as a group of procedures used for revealing defects in software, and for establishing that the software has attained a specified degree of quality with respect to selected attributes.


6.What is the difference between “Testing” and “Debugging”?




a. It is a dual purpose process a. Revel defects


b. To evaluate quality attributes


7. What is meant by Debugging?


Debugging is the process of


1.Locating the fault


2.Repairing the code


3.Retesting the code


8. List the levels of TMM?


TMM contains four levels.They are


Level 1: Initial


Level 2: Phase definition


Level 3: Integration


Level 4: Management and Measurement


Level 5:Optimization and quality control


9. List the members of the critical groups in a testing process?







10.Define Error and Faults?




An error is mistake or misconception or misunderstanding on the part of a software developer.




A fault is introduced into the software as the result of an error.It is an anomaly in the software that may cause into behave incorrectly, and not according to its specification.


11. Define Failures?

A failure is the inability of a software or component to perform its required functions within specified performance requirements.


12. What is the difference between Fault and Failure?



It is introduced into the software as the result of an error.It is an anomaly in the software that may cause into behave incorrectly and not according to its specification.




It is the inability of a software or component to perform its required functions within specified performance requirements.


13.What is meant by Test Cases?

Test Case is attested related item which contains the following information.


1. A set of inputs


2. Execution conditions


3.Expected outputs


14. What is meant by Test?

A Test is a group of related test cases and test procedure.


15. What is meant by Test Set?

A group of the related test is sometimes referred to as a test set.


16. What is meant by Test Suite?

A group of related tests that are associated with a database, and are usually run together, is sometimes referred to a test suite.


17. What is meant by Test Bed?

Test Oracle is an environment that contains all the hardware and software needed to test a software component or a software system.


18. What is meant by Test Oracle?

Test Bed is a document or a piece of software that allows a tester to determine whether a test has been passed or failed.


19. Define the Software Quality?

Software Quality relates to the degree to which a system, system component, or process meets specified requirements.


It is related to the degree to which a system, system component or process meets customer or user needs or expectations.


20.What are the attributes of Quality?


The Quality attributes are




2. Reliability




4. Integrity


5 .Portability


6. Maintainability


7. Interoperability


21. What is SQA group?

The Software Quality Assurance group is a team of people with necessary training and skills that all necessary actions are taken during the development process.


22. Define Reviews?

A review is a group meeting whose purpose is to evaluate a software artifact or a set of software artifacts.


23. List the Origin of Defects?


1. Education


2. Communication




24. Define Smart Tester?

Software must be tested before it is delivered to users. it is the responsibility of the testers to Design tests that


1. Reveal defects


2. Can be used to evaluate software performance, usability, and Reliability


25. Compare Block box testing and White box testing?


Block box testing:


1. In this, the tester is no knowledge of its inner structure.the tester only has knowledge of what it does.


2. It is usually applied large size piece of software


3. It is sometimes called functional or specification testing


White box testing:


1. It focuses on the inner structure of the software to be tested


2. It is applied to small size piece of software


3. It is sometimes called clear or glass box testing


26. What are the methods involved in White Box Testing?


1. Statement testing


2. Branch testing


3. Path testing


4. Data flow testing


5. Mutation testing


6. Loop testing


27. What are the methods involved in Block box Testing?

a. Equivalence class partitioning(ECP)


b. Boundary Value Analysis(BVA)


c. State Transition Testing(STT)


d. Cause and effect graphing


e. Error Guessing


28. What is meant by State in Testing?

A state is an internal configuration of a system or component. It is defined in terms of the values assumed at a particular time for the variables that characterize the system or component.


29. Define Finite-Stae machine?

A Finite-Stae machine is an abstract machine that can be represented by a state graph having a finite number of states and a finite number of transitions between states.


30. What is meant by “Error Guessing”?

The tester/developer is sometimes able to make an educated “guess” as to which type of defects may be present and design test cases to reveal them.


Error Guessing is an ad-hoc approach to the test design in most cases.


31. What are the Knowledge resources involved in Block box testing?

The below resources are involved in Block box testing


1. Requirements


2. Specifications


3. Domain Knowledge


4. Defect Analysis data


32. What are the Knowledge resources involved in White box testing?

The below resources are involved in Block box testing


a. High-level design


b. Detailed design


c. Control Flowngraphs


d.Cyclomatic complexity


33. Define Usage Profiles?

Usage Profiles is the characterization of the population of intended uses of the software in its intended environment.


34. Define Certification?

Certification refers to third-party assurance that a product, process, or service meets a specific set of requirements.


35. What are the basic primes for all structured program?

1. Sequential

2. Condition

3. Iteration


36. What is meant by Path in software testing?

The path is a sequence of control flow modes usually beginning from the entry node of a graph through to the exit node.


37. Write the formula for Cyclomatic Complexity?

Cyclomatic Complexity is calculated from control flow graph(G) by the following formula.

V(G) =E – N + 2

E – number of edges

N – number of nodes


38. List the various iterations of Loop testing?

The various iterations are


1. Zero Iteration of the loop


2. One iteration of the loop


3. Two iterations of the loop


4. K iterations of the loop


5. n-1 iterations of the loop


6. n+1 iterations of the loop


39. What is meant by Test Set?

Test Set is said to be mutation adequate for program P provided that for every in equivalent mutant pi of p there is an element t in T such that pi[t] is not equal to p[t].


40. What are the errors are uncovered by Block box Testing?

The following errors are uncovered by Block box Testing.They are


1. Incorrect or missing functions


2. Interface errors


3. Errors in data structures


4. Performance errors


5. Initialization or termination error.


41. What is meant by “Random Testing”?


Each software module or system has an input domain from which test input data is selected.If a tester randomly selects inputs from the domain, this is called testing.


42.List the levels of testing?

There are various levels of testing


1.Unit test


2. Integration test


3. System test


4. Acceptance test


43. What is meant by a Unit test?

The unit test is the smallest piece possible testable software component.At a unit test single component the only test.


44. List the phases of unit test planning?


Phase 1: Describe unit test approach


Phase 2: Identify unit features to be tested


Phase 3: Add levels of details to the plan


45. What are the roles are performed by the test planner?


1. Identify test risks


2. Describes techniques to be used for designing the test cases for the units


3. Describes techniques to be used for data validation and recording for test results



46. Define Integration Test?

In Integration Test several components are tested as a group and the tester investigates component interactions.


47. Define System Test?

When the integration test is completed a software system has been assembled and its major subsystems have been tested.At this point, developers/testers begin to test it as a whole.


48. What is meant by Alpha Test?

Alpha Test developers to use the software and note the problems.


47. What is meant by Beta Test?

Beta test who use it under real-world conditions and report the defect to the developing organization.


48. What are the approaches are used to develop the software?

In software development side




2. Top-down


In programming language sides

a. Procedure-oriented


b. Object-oriented


49. What are the issues of class testing?

1. Adequately testing classes

2. Observation of object states and state changes

3. The retesting of classes – I

4. The retesting of classes – II


50. Define test harness?

The auxiliary code developed into support testing of units and components is called a test harness.The harness consists of drivers that call the target code and stubs that represent modules it calls.


51. Define the incident report?


The tester determines from the test whether the unit has passed or failed the test.If the test is failed, the nature of the problem should be recorded in what is sometimes called a test incident report.


52. Define Summary report?

The causes of the failure should be recorded in the test summary report, which is the summary of testing activities for all the units covered by the unit test plan.


53. What are the goals of the Integration test?


1. To detects that occur at the interface of the units.


2. To assemble the individual units into working subsystems and finally a completed system that ready for system test.


54. What are the Integration Strategies?

There are two types of Integration Strategies


1. Top-down


2. Bottom-up


55. What is Cluster?

A Cluster consists of classes that are related and they may work together to support a required functionality for the complete system.


56. List the different types of system testing?

1. Functional testing


2. Performance testing


3. Stress testing


4. Configuration testing


5. Security testing


6. Recovery testing


57. Define Load generator?

Load generator is essential for testing quality requirements such as performance and stress.


58. Define Load?

A load is a series of inputs that simulates a group of transactions.


59. Define Functional Testing?


Functional Tests at the system level are used ensure that the behavior of the system adds here to the requirements specifications.


60. What are the two major requirements in the Performance Testing?

There are two requirements in the Performance Testing


1. Functional requirement


2. Quality requirement


61. Define Stress Testing?

When a system is tested with a load that causes it to allocate its resources in maximum amounts.It is important because it can reveal defects in real-time and other types of systems.


62. Define the Breaking System?

The goal of the stress is to try to break the system; Find the circumstances under which it will crash. This is sometimes called “Breaking the system”.


63. What is meant by “Regression Testing”?

Regression Testing is used to check for defects propagated to other modules by changes to existing program.Thus, regression testing is used to reduce the side effects of the changes.


64. What are the different types of goals in Testing?

1. Business goal


2. Technical goal


3. Business/technical goal


4. Political goal


65. What is meant by Goal?


1.A goal can be described as 1. a statement of intent


2. A statement of an accomplishment that an individual or an organization want to achieve.

66. What is meant by Policy?


A Policy can be defined as a high-level statement of principles or course of action that is used to govern a set of activities in an organization.


67. What is meant by Milestones?


Milestones are tangible events that are expected to occur at a certain time in the project’s lifetime.


68. List the plan Components?

1. Test plan identifier 8. Responsibility

2. Introduction 9. Scheduling

3. Items to be tested 10. Risk and Contingencies

4. Approach 11. Testing Costs

5. Pass/fail criteria 12. Approvals

6. Test deliverables

7. Testing tasks


69. What is meant by Work Breakdown Structure(WBS)?

A Work Breakdown Structure(WBS) is a hierarchical or tree-like representation of all the tasks that are required to complete a project.


70. Write the approaches to test Cost Estimation?


1. The COCOMO model and heuristics


2. Use of test cost drivers


3. Test tasks


4. Tester/developer ratios


5. Expert judgment


71. What is meant by Cost driver?

A Cost driver can be described as a process and product factor that has been impacted by overall project costs.


72. Write the WBS element for testing?


1. Project startup                                          7. Test execution


2. Management coordination                   8. Test measurement


3. Tool selection                                          9. Test analysis


4. Test planning                                        10. Test process improvement


5. Test design


6. Test development



73.Define Test Log?


The test log should be prepared by the person executing the tests. It is a diary of the events that take place during the test.It supports the concept of a test a repeatable.


74. What are the critical groups in testing planning and test plan policy?

1. Managers


2. Developers/Testers


3. Users/Clients


75. What is meant by Procedure?

A Procedure is a sequence of steps required to carry out a specific task.


76. What are the skills are needed by a test specialist?

1. Personal and managerial skills


2. Technical skills


77. What is the test term hierarchy?

1. Test manager

2. Test leader

3. Test engineer

4. Junior Test engineer


78. What is Project Monitoring?


Project Monitoring refers to the activities and task managers engage into periodically check the status of each project.


79. What is meant by Project Controlling?

Project Controlling consists of developing and applying a set of corrective actions to get on track when monitoring shows a deviation from what was planned.


80. What is meant by Software Configuration Management(SCM)?

SCM is a set of activities carried out for identifying, organizing and controlling changes throughout the lifecycle of computer software.


81. What is meant by Baseline?

Baselines are formally reviewed and agreed upon versions of software artifacts, from which all changes are measured.


82. What is meant by Version Control?

Version Control combines procedures and tools to manage different versions of configuration objects that are created during software process.


83. What is meant by Change Control?

Change Control is a set of procedures to evaluate the need for change and apply the changes requested by the user in a controlled manner.


84. Define Review?

A review is a group meeting whose purpose is to evaluate a software artifact or a set of software artifacts.


85. What are the goals of Reviewers?

1. Identify problem components or components in the software artifact that need improvement.


2. Identify components of the software artifact that don’t need improvement.


3. Ensure that the artifact confirms to organizational standards.


86. What are the benefits of a Review Program?


1. Higher quality software


2. Increased productivity


3. Increased awareness of quality issues


4. Reduced maintenance costs


5. Higher customer satisfaction


87. What are the various types of reviews?

There are two types of reviews






88. What are Inspections?

It is a type of review that is formal in nature and requires preview preparation on the part of the review team.


89. What is Walkthroughs?

Walkthroughs is a type of technical review where the producer of the reviewed materials serves as the review leader and actually guides the progression of the review.


90. What are the members present in the Review team?

1. SQA


2. Testers


3. Developers


4. Users/Clients


5. Specialists


91. List the components of the review plans?

1. Review goals

2. Items being reviewed

3. Preconditions for review

4. Rolls, Team size, Participants

5. Training requirements

6. Review steps

7. Time requirements


92. Why we are need the Block box Testing?

It is needed to


1. It handels the valid and invalid inputs


2. It encomposses the end user perspectives


3. It is addresses the stated requiremnts as well as implied requirments


93. What are the test cases included in the Acceptance Testing?


The following test cases included in the Acceptance Testing


1. End to end functionality verification


2. Domain tests


3. User scenario tests


4. Basic sanity tests


5. New functionality


94. What are the types of Regression Testing?

1. Regular regression testing


2. Final regression testing


95. What is meant by Ad-hoc Testing?

Ad-hoc Testing is “Testing done without using any format testing technique is called Ad-hoc testing.

96. What is meant by Buddy Testing?


The developer and tester working as buddies to help each other on testing and in undestanding the specifications is called Buddy testing.


97. What are the tools are required for testing OO systems?

1. Use cases


2. Class diagrams


3. Sequence diagrams


4. State charts



98. What is meant by Class diagrams?


Class diagrams represent the different entities and the relationship that exists among the entities.


99. What is meant by Usability testing?


The testing that validates the ease of Use, Speed, and Aesthetics of the product form th euser’s point of view is called Usability testing.


100. What is Accessibility Testing?

Verify the product usability for physically challenged users is called Accessibility Testing